India – Country Information

India is a South Central Asian country located in the Indian subcontinent. This vast country borders the Himalayas in the north, the Laccadive Sea in the south, the Bay of Bengal in the east, and the Arabian Sea in the west. Its neighbouring countries include China, Bhutan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Pakistan, and Nepal. It also shares maritime borders with Sri Lanka, Indonesia, Thailand, and the Maldives. Over the years, India emerged as an economic powerhouse in the region. 

Quick India Facts

  • Total Area: 1,269,219 square miles
  • Capital City: New Delhi
  • Largest Cities by Population: Mumbai, New Delhi, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad, and Pune
  • Government: Federal Parliamentary Constitutional Republic
  • Language: Hindi, English
  • Currency: Indian Rupee
  • Main Religions: Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity
  • Weather and Climate: Monsoon Climate. The Indian monsoon system has wet and dry seasons, with annual fluctuations of temperature. 
  • National Anthem: Jana Gana Mana

Society, Language, and Culture

A multiethnic country, India has a diverse culture that makes them unique and enticing at the same time. This cultural diversity was born out of migration and intermarriage. India’s language, society, and culture is often described as an amalgamation of many different cultures from a host of countries, which is not significantly impacting the Indosphere and the world. 

India does not have a national language, but Hindustani and English are widely spoken here. Hindustani, according to linguists, derives from an early version of Hindi known as Khari Boli. The British empire mainly encouraged the use of Hindustani during the colonial period and persisted up to this day. 

Mass Transportation

During its independence, India’s transportation system highly regarded as superior compared to other countries in the region. Its railroad system, which connected the nation, is among the most extensive and heavily used in the world. Its mountain railways are now one of the UNESCO-designated Heritage Site. To this day, India has millions of bullock carts. 

Ports are mostly located in Mumbai, Chennai, and Kolkata and are all government-managed. India has two-government owned airlines, Air India that manages international flights from New Delhi, Kolkata, Mumbai, and Chennai; and Indian Airlines for local flights and within neighbouring countries. 

Economy and Industry

India may be one of the most diversified economies in the world. However, the country’s enormous population often negates its economy. That, when factored in, India can be regarded as one of the poorest in the world in terms of their gross national product (GNP). However, in recent, years, more and more Indians are now making it to the list of high-net-worth individuals. 

Agriculture remains India’s main economic driver, with most of its labour force working on farms to grow crops and grains. 

Tourism and Recreation

India is most distinctive in dance, theatre, music, festivals and cuisines. Most of the tourists visiting the country often make a stop at the Taj Mahal at Agra and the Amber Palace in Jaipur. A number would also go on pilgrimages and flock to the sacred grounds of the Ganges River, Ajanta temple caves, and the Bodhgaya temple, the very place where the Buddha reached enlightenment. 

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